Glossary

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    {"items":[{"label":{"url":"","label":"Agri-environment scheme","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Land management scheme that provides funding to farmers and other land managers in England to deliver effective environmental management on their land.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Alien species","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"See invasive non native species.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Alkalinity","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a surface water body that influences its classification","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Alternative objectives","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"In certain and specific circumstances (set out in Article 4.4 and 4.5 of the WFD) member states may deviate from achieving the default objectives of the WFD. Objectives which are different from the default objectives are referred to as alternative objectives.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Altitude classification","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a surface water body that influences its classification","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Angiosperms","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The flowering plants. In transitional and coastal waters they include sea grasses and the flowering plants found in salt marshes.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Aquifer","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A subsurface layer or layers of rock or other geological strata of sufficient porosity and permeability to allow either a significant flow of groundwater or the abstraction of significant quantities of groundwater.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Artificial or heavily modified designation","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The Hydromorphological Designation of a water body, i.e. whether it is considered to be artificial or heavily modified by human activity.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Artificial water body","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A man-made water body, rather than a modified natural water body, which supports important aquatic ecosystems. It includes canals, some docks and some man-made reservoirs.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Asset management plan","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"See Periodic Review.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Bathing waters","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Bathing waters are beaches, lakes or ponds that are used by a large number of bathers and have been designated under the Bathing Water Directive","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Bathing waters directive","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Areas where water quality is preserved, protected and improved, under European legislation 2006/7/EC, to protect the health of bathers. (Also see \u0027protected areas\u0027)","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Benefits","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"In the context of river basin management planning economic appraisal, a benefit is any additional value to people, the environment or the economy which arises from action to improve the water environment. For example, improving the water quality and flow in a river may result in the fish population improving so that the river can be used for angling and thus deliver recreational benefits.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Biodiversity action plan","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"National, local and sector-specific plans established under the United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan, with the intention of securing the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Biological element","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A collective term for a particular characteristic group of animals or plants present in an aquatic ecosystem (for example phytoplankton; benthic invertebrates; phytobenthos; macrophytes; macroalgae; phytobenthos; angiosperms; fish).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Biological indicators","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A parameter that can be monitored to estimate the value of a biological quality element. Indicators may include the presence or absence of a particularly sensitive species.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Biological quality element","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A characteristic or property of a biological element that is specifically listed in Annex V of the Water Framework Directive for the definition of the ecological status of a water body (for example composition of invertebrates; abundance of angiosperms; age structure of fish).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Brackish","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a lake water body based on the conductivity of the water","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Calcareous","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The predominant geology underlying a river or lake water body is calcareous (e.g. limestone or chalk)","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Canal","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Artificial bodies of inland water built for navigation that for the most part are on the surface of the land but which may be underground for part of their course. Canals are not defined by the Water Framework Directive — they are a sub-type of river used within the Environment Agency.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Catchment","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The area from which precipitation contributes to the flow from a borehole spring, river or lake. For rivers and lakes this includes tributaries and the areas they drain. In river basin management this can refer to the larger management catchments and the smaller operational catchments. ","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Catchment abstraction management strategies","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"These are developed for the management of water resources at a local level. They provide information on water resources and licensing practice to allow the needs of abstractors, other water users and the aquatic environment to be considered in consultation with the local community and interested parties.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Catchment flood management plans","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"These are strategic planning tools through which the Environment Agency seeks to work with other important decision-makers within a river catchment to identify and agree policies for sustainable flood risk management.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Catchment modelling techniques","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Methods used to describe and/or predict characteristics of a catchment. Traditionally, these have focused on natural processes or movement of pollutants but they can also include other factors such as demographic, social and economic characteristics.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Challenges and choices consultation","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The challenges and choices consultation was run prior to the consultation on the draft update to the river basin management plans. This consultation looks specifically at the significant water management issues (SWMIs) for each river basin district. See \u0027Summary of significant water management issues\u0027","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Characterisation (of water bodies)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A two-stage assessment of water bodies under the Water Framework Directive. Stage 1 identifies water bodies and describes their natural characteristics. Stage 2 assesses the pressures and impacts from human activities on the water environment. The assessment identifies those water bodies that are at risk of not achieving the environmental objectives set out in the Water Framework Directive. The results are used to prioritise both environmental monitoring and further investigations to identify those water bodies where improvement action is required.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Chemical status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The classification status for the surface water body against the environmental standards for chemicals that are priority substances and priority hazardous substances. Chemical status is recorded as good or fail. A status of good means that concentrations of priority substances and priority hazardous substances do not exceed the environmental quality standards in the EQS Directive. The chemical status classification for the water body, and the confidence in this (high or low), is determined by the worst test result. Chemical status and ecological status together define the overall surface water status of a water body. For groundwater see \"Groundwater chemical status\".","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Classification","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Method for distinguishing the environmental condition or \"status\" of water bodies and putting them into one category or another.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Co-deliverer","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Agencies and institutions with statutory powers or who have it in their power to deliver actions needed to implement river basin management plans.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Coastal/Estuary forums \u0026 Partnerships","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Organisations formed to facilitate the integration and management of actions and activities in estuaries and at the coast. They are uniquely placed to provide relevant expertise and a range of key services to coastal stakeholders.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Common agricultural policy ","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The EU\u0027s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the system of agricultural subsidies and programmes. It covers farming, environmental measures and rural development, and controls EU agricultural markets. It is the EU\u0027s single largest common policy and accounts for over 40% of the entire EU budget.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Common implementation strategy","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"This strategy was agreed by the European Commission, Member States and Norway in 2001. The aim of the strategy is to provide support in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive, by developing a common understanding and guidance on key elements of the Directive.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Competent authority ","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An authority or authorities identified under Article 3(2) or 3(3) of the Water Framework Directive. The competent authority will be responsible for the application of the rules of the Directive within each river basin district lying within its territory. The Environment Agency is the competent authority for producing and updating river basin management plans in England.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Cost effective","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"In the context of river basin management planning, it describes the least cost option for meeting an objective. For example, where there are a number of potential actions that could be implemented to achieve good status for a water body, the option that delivers the objective for the least overall cost is the most cost effective option. Cost Effectiveness Analysis can be used to compare each option and identify the most cost effective one but ultimately cannot assess whether an option is economically worthwhile (see \u0027Economically worthwhile\u0027).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Cross compliance","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A form of conditionality by which, farmers in receipt of the Basic Farm Payment through the Common Agricultural Policy are required to comply with European Union environmental legislation, called Statutory Management Requirements for example the Nitrates Directive; standards for maintaining land and the environment, called \u0027Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions\u0027 (GAECs); a requirement on the UK to maintain a certain level of permanent pasture.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Cycle","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A description of a time period, usually six years, that has associated methods of classifying the ecological status of water bodies, water body boundaries and their association with catchments","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Cycle 1","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The first cycle of river basin planning under the Water Framework Directive, running from the publication of river basin plans in 2009 until 2015","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Cycle 2","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The second cycle of river basin planning under the Water Framework Directive, running from the publication of river basin plans in 2015 until 2021","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Deep","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a lake water body that is greater than 3.0 metres deep","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Delineation (of water bodies)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Identifying the type and defining the boundary of a water body for rivers, lakes, estuaries, coastal waters and groundwater under the Water Framework Directive.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Depth","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of lake water bodies that influences their classification","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Diffuse pollution","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Pollution that comes from many sources. These sources may be small individually but damaging collectively.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Disbenefits","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"In the context of river basin management planning economic appraisal, a disbenefit is any negative consequence (negative impact, cost, trade-off) which society and/or the environment will bear from implementing measures to improve the water environment.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Disproportionate cost","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The determination of disproportionate cost requires a decision making procedure that assesses whether the benefits of meeting good status in a water body are outweighed by the costs.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Disproportionately expensive","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"In the context of the Water Framework Directive, the determination of disproportionate cost is a political decision informed by economic information. It is a decision making process that assesses whether the benefits of meeting good status for a water body are outweighed by the costs. Something is considered to be disproportionate where the negative consequences (the costs, negative impacts) outweigh the positive consequences (the benefits) of improvements to the water environment. Affordability is also a consideration of disproportionate cost; how much money is available to do things and by when (affordability). Used as a justification for setting an alternative objective where:\n1. Attaining the default objective is not worthwhile because the costs of the measure are out of proportion to the benefits, taking into account qualitative as well as quantitative information.\n2. Or where the measure would be: a) unaffordable to implement within a particular timetable without creating disproportionate burdens for particular sectors or parts of society; or b) the only solution would be significantly at odds with the polluter pays principle.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Drinking water protected areas","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"See \u0027protected areas\u0027","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Ecological continuum","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The persistence of the ecological structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems over time and space.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Ecological potential","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The status of a heavily modified or artificial water body measured against the maximum ecological quality it could achieve given the constraints imposed upon it by those heavily modified or artificial characteristics necessary for its use. There are five ecological potential classes for Heavily Modified Water Bodies and Artificial Water Bodies (maximum, good, moderate, poor and bad).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Ecological recovery time","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The time it takes the ecology of a system to recover once the pressures impacting that system have been removed.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Ecological status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Ecological status applies to surface water bodies and is based on the following quality elements: biological quality, general chemical and physico-chemical quality, water quality with respect to specific pollutants (synthetic and non synthetic), and hydromorphological quality. There are five classes of ecological status (high, good, moderate, poor or bad). Ecological status and chemical status together define the overall surface water status of a water body.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Economic advisory stakeholder group","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A group to coordinate the work going forward in England and Wales in relation to the economic analysis required by the Water Framework Directive.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Economic analysis","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An economic analysis has been produced as part of the consultation on the draft update to the river basin management plans. This is to help readers understand the potential implications to 4 sector groupings of 5 future management scenarios. Information on costs and benefits is summarised for England and for each river basin district.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Economic appraisal","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Catchment economic appraisals were carried out to assess the benefits, cost and any negative impacts of implementing measures to improve the water environment. The Environment Agency has designed a robust approach, based on HM Treasury guidelines, that is proportionate and fit for purpose. The economic appraisal approach is designed to assess the economic efficiency of measures that is part of the decision making on disproportionate cost, rather than as an optimisation exercise. The economic appraisals have not taken account of the question of affordability.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Economically significant species (Shellfish waters)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Areas where water quality is protected and improved to support the growth of healthy shellfish (bivalve and gastropod molluscs) and contribute to good quality edible shellfish. (Also see \u0027protected areas\u0027).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Economically worthwhile","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"In the context of river basin management planning economic appraisal, something which is considered to be cost beneficial; the benefits (positive consequences) outweigh (are greater) than the costs (negative consequences) of taking action to improve the water environment.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Ecosystem approach","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. It is a way of looking at the natural environment that allows the value of the natural environment to be taken in to account during environmental decision making.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Ecosystem services","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The services that people receive from nature; a service that the natural environment provides that improves people\u0027s quality of life. Ecosystem services can be tangible such as increased fish populations for fishing, improved water availability during drought or more subtle such as pollination of crops and natural flood regulation.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Eel management plans","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"EU member states, where eels naturally occur, have to produce eel management plans aimed at reversing the decline in eel numbers. These have to set out actions to ensure that at least 40% of potential adult eels will return to sea to spawn.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Environment Agency","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Environment Agency in England.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Estuarine/estuaries","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Waters that are intermediate between fresh and marine water (see also \u0027Transitional\u0027).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Eutrophication","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The enrichment of waters by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and/or phosphorus, causing an accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life, producing an undesirable disturbance to the balance of organisms present in the water and the quality of the water concerned.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Exposed","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An property of a coastal water body indicating the degree of exposure to waves","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Exposure classification","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A description of used to classify water bodies according to how exposed to waves they are","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Extended deadline","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Under certain circumstances, and subject to the detailed conditions in Article 4.4, the Water Framework Directive allows the deadline for achieving objectives to be extended. \u0027Extended deadlines\u0027 can apply to water bodies where achievement of Directive objectives by an earlier date would be technically infeasible or disproportionately expensive or not possible because of natural recovery time.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Extensive intertidal","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a coastal water body indicating whether or not it has a large area exposed at low tide","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Extra small","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a river water body with a catchment size of less than 10km\u003csup\u003e2\u003csup\u003e","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Flood risk management plans","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs) highlight the hazards and risks of flooding from rivers, the sea, surface water, groundwater and reservoirs, and set out how Risk Management Authorities work together with communities to manage flood risk.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Floods directive","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The purpose of the European Union Directive on flooding (2007/60/EC) is to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks aiming at the reduction of the adverse consequences on human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. It requires member states to undertake flood risk assessments, flood risk mapping and produce flood risk management plans. The Directive was published in early November 2007 and must be transposed into United Kingdom law by 26 November 2009.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Freshwater fish directive","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The Freshwater Fish Directive was adopted in 1978 and was repealed in 2013 by the Water Framework Directive. For more details see Part 2 of the consultation.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Good chemical status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"See \u0027chemical status\u0027","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Good ecological potential","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Those surface waters which are identified as Heavily Modified Water Bodies and Artificial Water Bodies must aim to achieve \u0027good ecological potential\u0027 (good potential is a recognition that changes to morphology may make good ecological status very difficult to meet). In the first cycle of river basin planning good potential may be defined in relation to the mitigation measures required to achieve it.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Good ecological status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"See \u0027Ecological status\u0027","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Good status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Good status is a term meaning the status achieved by a surface water body when both the ecological status and its chemical status are at least good. For groundwater bodies, the worst case classification from the five chemical tests is reported as the overall chemical status of the groundwater body, and the worst case classification from the four quantitative tests is reported as the overall quantitative status.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Groundwater","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"All water which is below the surface of the ground in the saturation zone and in direct contact with the ground or subsoil.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Groundwater Body","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A distinct volume of groundwater within an aquifer or aquifers. An aquifer may have one or more groundwater bodies.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Groundwater Directive","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Directive (2006/118/EC) on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration. A daughter directive of the Water Framework Directive.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Groundwater chemical status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Groundwater chemical status is an expression of the overall quality of the groundwater body based on five tests and takes into consideration defined threshold values and trends. ","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Groundwater quantitative status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Groundwater quantitative status is an expression of the overall impact that groundwater abstraction has on the groundwater body and dependent ecosystems. It is based on four tests","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Habitat action plans","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"See \u0027Biodiversity Action Plans\u0027 ","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Habitats and Birds directives","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The Habitats and Wild Bird Directives are European Legislation that protect certain species and habitats in the European Union. See \u0027protected areas\u0027","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Hazardous Substances (groundwater)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A hazardous substance is any substance or group of substances that are toxic, persistent and liable to bio-accumulate. The Joint Agencies Groundwater Directive Advisory Group (JAGDAG) provide a mechanism for making UK wide determinations and compile a UK list of hazardous substances.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Heavily modified water body","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A surface water body that does not achieve good ecological status because of substantial changes to its physical character resulting from physical alterations caused by human use, and which has been designated, in accordance with criteria specified in the Water Framework Directive, as \u0027heavily modified\u0027.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"High alkalinity","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An allowable value for the description of the alkalinity of a water body","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"High altitude","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a river or lake water body lying above 800 metres above sea level","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"High ecological status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Is a state, in a surface water body, where the values of the hydromorphological, physico-chemical, and biological quality elements correspond to conditions undisturbed by anthropogenic activities.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Hydromorphology","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Describes the hydrological and geomorphological processes and attributes of surface water bodies. For example for rivers, hydromorphology describes the form and function of the channel as well as its connectivity (up and downstream and with groundwater) and flow regime, which defines its ability to allow migration of aquatic organisms and maintain natural continuity of sediment transport through the fluvial system. The Water Framework Directive requires surface waters to be managed in such a way as to safeguard their hydrology and geomorphology so that ecology is protected.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Immediate downstream","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Relates a surface water body to another that is immediately downstream of it.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Immediate upstream","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Relates a surface water body to another that is immediately upstream of it. A water body may have more than one water body immediately upstream of it as it may lie downstream of a water body confluence or may have several tributaries feeding into it.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Impact assessment","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The statutory guidance to the Environment Agency on river basin management planning requires a final Impact Assessment to be prepared alongside the updated river basin management plans. The Impact Assessment will examine the costs, benefits and distributional impacts that could result from Ministerial decisions to approve the 2nd cycle river basin management plans. The Environment Agency are not undertaking an impact assessment of everything to do with the Water Framework Directive.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Inshore fisheries and conservation authorities","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"As a result of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009, Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authorities replace Sea Fisheries Committees and have strengthened powers to tackle fishing practices that cause unacceptable damage to the wider marine environment.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Integrated coastal zone management","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An informal process of people and organisations working together to manage coastal areas - both on the land and at sea. It can harmonise different policies, planning and decision - making structures and bring people together to tackle common issues.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Integrated river basin and coastal management","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A process whereby all pressures in a catchment are assessed and action undertaken in an integrated, proportionate and efficient way. A range of stakeholders are involved in the setting of priorities and their ultimate delivery.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Invasive non native species","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Many species of plants and animals have been introduced to this country. Several of these non-native species are invasive and have been causing serious problems to the aquatic and riverine ecology and environment. Problems include detrimental effects on native species, deoxygenation of water causing fish mortalities, blocking of rivers and drainage channels, predation and competition with native species, and in some cases pose health risks to the public or livestock.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Lagoon","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Indicates that a coastal water is a lagoon. A Lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier sands or reefs.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Lake","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A body of standing inland surface water.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Large","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property indicating whether a river or lake is considered large. Rivers with a catchment area greater than 1,000 km\u003csup\u003e2\u003csup\u003e.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Less stringent objectives","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Under certain circumstances, and subject to the detailed conditions in Article 4.5, the Water Framework Directive allows for the setting of objectives that give a lower standard of environmental protection. \u0027Less stringent objectives\u0027 can apply to water bodies where achievement of Directive objectives would be technically infeasible, disproportionately expensive or because of its natural condition.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Local development frameworks and plans","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, local plans and unitary development plans in England were replaced by Local Development Frameworks. These are made up of a number of statutory and non-statutory local development documents. In Wales, they are called Local Development Plans.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Low alkalinity","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An allowable value for the description of the alkalinity of a water body","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Low altitude","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a river or lake water body that lies below 200 metres above sea level","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Macro-tidal","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a transitional or coastal water body with a tidal range greater than 5 metres","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Macroalgae","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Multicellular algae such as seaweed.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Macrophyte","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Larger plants, typically including flowering plants, mosses and larger algae but not including single-celled phytoplankton or diatoms.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Management catchment","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An amalgamation of a number of river water body catchments that provide a management unit at which level actions are applied.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Management catchment","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Management catchments are hydrological management areas. They are built up from river water body catchments into similar sized management units, of a scale that suits management and planning from an Environment Agency perspective. All the land area of England and Wales is divided into management catchments, so they include the coastline as part of their definition. They do not have a formal statutory reporting role.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Marine Conservation Zone","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Under the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009, Marine Conservation Zones conserve the diversity of nationally rare, threatened and representative habitats and species","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Marine Management Organisation","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Created by the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009, the Marine Management Organisation license, regulate and plan activities in English seas so that they\u0027re carried out in a sustainable way.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Marine Policy Statement","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The Marine Policy Statement (MPS) is the framework for preparing Marine Plans and taking decisions affecting the marine environment.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An act to ensure greater protection of marine resources and to deliver sustainable development in the marine and coastal environment by addressing both the use and protection of marine resources.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Marine pollution monitoring management group","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Group comprising government departments, agencies and government research institutions. They co-ordinate a United Kingdom programme of estuarine and coastal monitoring designed to satisfy a number of requirements including trend monitoring for the Oslo and Paris Convention, compliance with European Commission Directives and international conventions, local needs and for research and development.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Marine strategy framework directive","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive provides a framework to allow co-ordinated action across Europe to achieve Good Environmental Status and provides the tools to achieve clean, healthy, productive and biologically diverse oceans and seas,","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Measure","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"This term is used in the Water Framework Directive and domestic legislation. It means an action which will be taken on the ground to help achieve Water Framework Directive objectives.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Mechanisms","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The policy, legal and financial tools which are used to bring about actions (measures). Mechanisms include for example: legislation, economic instruments; codes of good practice; negotiated agreements; promotion of water efficiency; educational projects; research; development and demonstration projects.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Medium","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a catchment that indicates its area is in the range 100-1000km\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Meso-tidal","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a transitional or coastal water body with a tidal range between 1 and 5 metres","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Micro-tidal","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a transitional or coastal water body with a tidal range of less than 1 metre","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Middle altitude","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a river or lake water body that lies between 200 and 800 metres above sea level","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Moderate alkalinity","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a water body that indicates that it is of moderate alkalinity.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Moderately exposed","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An property of a coastal water body indicating the degree of exposure to waves","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Monetised benefits","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"See \u0027benefits\u0027. Benefits can be quantified in financial terms using different economic valuation techniques. The reason that (some) benefits need to be quantified in monetary terms is in order to compare like with like (costs in \u0026pound; with benefits in \u0026pound;). In addition to recreational services and existence and aesthetic values, the ecosystem services (see \u0027Ecosystem Services\u0027) provided by wetland creation are also monetised in the catchment economic appraisals that the Environment Agency has carried out.\nThe Environment Agency is using economic tools and studies to understand how much people value a change in the non-market benefits that the water environment provides. The method the Environment Agency has used to monetise benefits in catchment economic appraisals is based on the use of surveys asking people to state how much they would be willing to pay for an improvement in the water environment (locally and nationally). See \u0027Willingness to pay (values)\u0027 and \u0027National Water Environment Benefits Survey\u0027.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Morphology","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Describes the physical form and condition of a water body, for example the width, depth and perimeter of a river channel, the structure and condition of the riverbed and bank.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"National","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"This term refers, in the consultation, to England. The Environment Agency covers the whole of England and is the competent authority for the Water Framework Directive.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"National Water Environment Benefits Survey","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Assessed public values for improvement to six components of a healthy water environment: fish, plants, invertebrates and other animals, clarity of the water, flow and condition of the channel, and safety of the water for recreational contact. A sample of 1,500 people were interviewed to find out what was the most they would be willing to pay for an improvement in the quality of the water environment, both locally and nationally. The result was a set of figures known as \u0027Willingness to Pay\u0027 values (see \u0027Willingness to pay\u0027). These figures reflect the value that people attach to improvements in recreation and aesthetic benefits from the water environment, as well as the value they place on it existing, even if they don\u0027t directly use it.\nReference: P. Metcalfe (2012). Non-market valuation using stated preferences: Applications in the water sector, Thesis submitted to the Dept. of Geography and Environment, the London School of Economics \u0026 Political Science.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Natura 2000 sites","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Protected Areas established for the protection of habitats or species under the Birds Directive (79/409/EEC) (Special Protection Areas) and the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) (Special Areas of Conservation).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Natural England","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The government-funded body whose purpose is to promote the conservation of England\u0027s wildlife and natural features. The previously existing organisations English Nature, the Countryside Agency and Rural Development Service were merged to form Natural England.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Natural Resources Wales","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Welsh Government Sponsored Body whose purpose is to ensure that the natural resources of Wales are sustainably maintained, enhanced and used, now and in the future. Natural resources Wales lead on the West Wales and Dee River Basin Management Plans.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Net present value","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Net present value is the present value benefits minus the present value costs (see \u0027Present value costs/benefits\u0027).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Nitrate Vulnerable Zones","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) is designated where land drains and contributes to the nitrate found in \"polluted\" waters","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Nitrates directive","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A basic measure under the WFD, the Nitrates Directive aims to protect water quality by preventing nitrates from agricultural sources polluting ground and surface waters and by promoting the use of good farming practices.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"No deterioration (in water body status)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Where none of the quality elements used in the classification of water body status deteriorates to the extent that the overall status of the water body is reduced. This is referred to as \u0027preventing deterioration\u0027 throughout the consultation.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Non monetised benefits","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Improving the water environment has wider benefits than those the Environment Agency has monetised in catchment economic appraisals (see \u0027monetised benefits\u0027). These have been identified using ecosystem services (see \u0027Ecosystem Services\u0027). The impacts on ecosystem services may be positive or negative and be more or less significant. These impacts, although not monetised in an appraisal, are taken account of when assessing the overall positive and negative consequences of implementing measures to improve the water environment.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Not designated artificial or heavily modified","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A description of a water body that has not been designated as artificial or heavily modified. In other words it is substantially natural in character.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Nutrient sensitive areas","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Includes Nitrate Vulnerable Zones under the Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) and Sensitive Areas involving eutrophication or elevated nitrates under the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC). See \u0027protected areas\u0027.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Objective","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The planned status of a water body that must be achieved or maintained. There are three different status objectives for each water body. These are Overall status objective, Ecological status or potential objective; and Chemical status objective. These are always accompanied by a date by when the objective will be achieved. Ecological status (or potential) objectives will be derived from the predicted outcomes for the biological elements and physico-chemical elements, plus any reasons for not achieving good ecological status (or potential) by 2015. Chemical status objectives will be derived from the predicted outcomes for the chemical elements plus any reasons for not achieving good chemical status by 2015. Overall status objectives will be derived from the ecological status and chemical status objectives.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Operational catchment","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An amalgamation of a small number of river water body catchments. Operational catchments are smaller units, as a rule, than management catchments. They are used in the economic analysis process to identify packages of measures that can be applied to improve the ecological status of the water bodies within it","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Organic","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The dominant geology of an area underlying a river or lake water body is organic e.g. peat","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Oslo and Paris convention","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The 1992 Oslo and Paris Convention is the current instrument guiding international cooperation on the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. It combined and up-dated the 1972 \nOslo Convention on dumping waste at sea and the 1974 Paris Convention on land-based sources of marine pollution. \nThe work under the convention is managed by the Oslo and Paris Commission, made up of representatives from the Governments of the 15 Contracting Parties and the European Commission.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Periodic review","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"This is the process, carried out every five years by the Water Services Regulation Authority, to assess the water company business plans including spending and investment. The plans include environmental improvements. The process is to ensure that water companies provide a good quality service and value for money for their customers. The outcome affects customers\u0027 water bill charges. During implementation of the business plan it is often known as an Asset Management Plan.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Phytobenthos","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Bottom-dwelling multi-cellular and unicellular aquatic plants such as some species of diatom.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Phytoplankton","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Unicellular algae and cyanobacteria, both solitary and colonial that live, at least for part of their lifecycle, in the water column.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Planning policy statements","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Planning Policy Statements set out the Government\u0027s national policies on different aspects of land use planning in England and are produced by the Department for Communities and Local Government (formerly Office of the Deputy Prime Minister).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Point source pollution","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Pollution arising from an identifiable and discrete source such as a discharge pipe.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Pollution","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The direct or indirect introduction, as a result of human activity, of substances or heat into the air, water or land which: (i) may be harmful to human health or the quality of aquatic ecosystems or terrestrial ecosystems directly depending on aquatic ecosystems; (ii) result in damage to material property; or (iii) impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Present value costs/benefits","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A way of expressing the value of costs and benefits that will happen in the future in today\u0027s money. People tend to value future costs and benefits differently to benefits and costs occurring in the present. A technique known as \u0027discounting\u0027 takes this into account and expresses what a future impact is worth now.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Pressures","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Human activities such as abstraction, effluent discharges or engineering works that have the potential to have adverse effects on the water environment.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Prevent and Limit","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"To enact requirements of the WFD on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration, all necessary and reasonable measures must be taken to prevent the entry of hazardous substances to groundwater and limit the input of non-hazardous substances to avoid pollution.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Priority substances","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A pollutant, or group of pollutants, presenting a significant risk to or via the aquatic environment that has been identified at Community level under Article 16 of the Water Framework Directive. They include \u0027priority hazardous substances\u0027. For groundwater, see Hazardous substances.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Programme of measures","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A Programme of Measures, as used in the Water Framework Directive, is a summary of the actions designed to improve the environment in a river basin district and meet the objectives of the Directive.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Protected areas","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Areas that have been designated as requiring special protection under EU legislation for the protection of their surface water and groundwater or for the protection of habitats and species directly depending on water. Part 2 of the consultation contains more detail on the protected areas","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Quality element","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A feature of an aquatic ecosystem that can be described as a number for the purposes of calculating an ecological quality ratio, such as the concentration of a pollutant; the number of species of a type of plant.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Ramsar site","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A wetland area designated for its conservation value under The 1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat. The Ramsar Convention seeks to promote the conservation of listed wetlands and their wise use.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Reason for not achieving good status","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Records the source, activity and sector involved in causing an element to be at less than good status. Previously known as a reason for failure.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Reference conditions","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The benchmark against which the effects on surface water ecosystems of human activities can be measured and reported in the relevant classification scheme. For waters not designated as heavily modified or artificial, the reference conditions are synonymous with the high ecological status class. For waters designated as heavily modified or artificial, they are synonymous with the maximum ecological potential class.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Regional spatial strategies","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"These are frameworks in England controlling development across an area or region (for example for tourism, planning, waste, minerals, energy).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Representative point","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Relates a water body to a representative point. A representative point is a point in and near the middle of the water body, usually expressed as a National Grid Reference","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"River","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A description for a type of water body","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"River basin","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A river basin is the area of land from which all surface run-off and spring water flows through a sequence of streams, lakes and rivers into the sea at a single river mouth, estuary or delta. It comprises one or more individual catchments.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"River basin district","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A river basin or several river basins, together with associated coastal waters. A river basin district is the main unit for management of river basins under the WFD.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"River basin district liaison panels","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A panel consisting of up to 15 representatives of strategic co-deliverers including bodies with statutory powers and others who will need to put measures into action for the river basin district. The panel represents all key interests within the river basin district and is the primary focus for engagement at the RBD level.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"River basin management plan","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"For each river basin district, the Water Framework Directive requires a river basin management plan to be published. These are plans that set out the environmental objectives for all the water bodies within the river basin district and a summary of the programme of measures that will be taken to achieve those objectives. The plans will be based upon a detailed analysis of the pressures on the water bodies and an assessment of their impacts. The plans must be reviewed and updated every six years.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"River basin management planning","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The management and associated planning process that underpins implementation and operation of the Water Framework Directive. It is both an overarching process in terms of existing processes and also defines new sub-processes such as those for hydromorphology. The river basin management plans are plans for river basin management.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Rivers trusts","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Charities and organisations set up to assist in the conservation, protection and improvement of rivers and associated environments.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Rural development programme","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The England Rural Development Programme and the Rural Development Plan for Wales are schemes in the Government\u0027s Public Incentive Programme. These programmes are of major significance for rural land management as they provide substantial funding to land managers conditional on the implementation of environmental (and other) actions.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Safeguard zones","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Drinking water safeguard zones (SgZs) are areas where additional voluntary measures are needed to reduce the risk of deterioration in raw water (e.g. rivers, reservoirs, groundwater) where that water is intended for human consumption.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Salinity classification","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of coastal water body to a classification of its salinity.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Saturated zone","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Subsurface rock or other geological strata within which the pore spaces between the particles of rock or other strata, and the cracks in those strata are filled with water.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Shallow","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a lake water body that is less than or equal to 3.0 metres deep","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Shellfish Waters","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"See \u0027Economically significant species\u0027","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Shellfish Waters Directive","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The Shellfish Waters Directive was repealed in 2013 by the Water Framework Directive. ","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Sheltered","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An property of a coastal water body indicating the degree of exposure to waves","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Siliceous","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The predominant geology underlying a river or lake water body is siliceous (e.g. sandstone)","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Site of special scientific interest (SSSIs)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An area of land notified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 by the appropriate nature conservation body (Scottish Natural Heritage in Scotland) as being of special interest by virtue of its flora and fauna, geological or physiogeographical features.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Small","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A property of a river water body having a catchment area of 10-100 km\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Spatial planning","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Spatial planning is wider ranging than land-use planning based on regulation and control of land, and aims to ensure the best use of land by assessing competing demands. Social, economic and environmental factors are taken into account in producing a decision that is more conducive to sustainable development.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Special area of conservation (SAC)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A category of Natura 2000 site that is designated under the Habitats Directive. See \u0027protected areas\u0027.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Special protection area (SPA)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A category of Natura 2000 site that is designated under the Birds Directive. See \u0027protected areas\u0027.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Specific Pollutant","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Substance identified as a potential pollutant by a Member State. These substances and associated EQS are proposed in the UK by the UKTAG and introduced into legislation by government. ","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Stakeholder","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Individuals or groups that are or could become interested in, involved in or affected by Environment Agency policies and activities. The Environment Agency\u0027s stakeholders include regulators, statutory bodies, professional organisations, local organisations and members of the public.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Stakeholder forum","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A group of interested parties to guide and advice on river basin planning and management.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Strategic environmental assessment directive (2001/42/EC)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"European environmental legislation which requires an \u0027environmental assessment\u0027 to be carried out for certain plans and programmes whose formal preparation began after 21 July 2004 (or are prepared but not adopted or submitted by a legislative procedure by 21 July 2006), and which are considered likely to have significant effects on the environment. The term \"Strategic Environmental Assessment\" is used in United Kingdom guidance to mean an environmental assessment under this Directive.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Summary of significant water management issues","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"This is a consultation on a report for each river basin district which highlights significant water management issues in that river basin district which will need to be addressed to achieve environmental objectives under the Water Framework Directive. See \u0027Challenges and choices\u0027 consultation\u0027","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Surface Water Body","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A river, lake, transitional or coastal water body. ","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Surface water transfer","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A description for artificial bodies of inland water built for the transfer of water from one water body to another that for the most part are on the surface of the land but which may be underground for part of their course. Surface Water Transfers are not defined by the Water Framework Directive - they are a sub-type of river used within the Environment Agency.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Surface waters","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Generally refers to water bodies above the ground (i.e. not including groundwater)","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Sustainable drainage systems","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A system of management practices and control structures designed to drain surface water in a more sustainable fashion than some conventional techniques.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Technical feasibility","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Technical feasibility is determined through the assessment of whether the implementation of a measure or programme of measures, designed to achieve the Water Framework Directive objectives, is technically possible either at the national and local level and includes the consideration of uncertainty as well as environmental and socio-economic feasibility. Technical feasibility depends upon the availability of a technical solution and information on the cause of the problem and hence the identification of the solution.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"The Water Services Regulation Authority","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The economic regulator for the water and sewerage sectors in England and Wales. Commonly known as Ofwat and previously called Office of Water Services. Renamed the Water Services Regulation Authority. a) abstraction, impoundment, storage, treatment and distribution of surface water or groundwater; and (b) waste water collection and treatment facilities which subsequently discharge into surface water.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Tidal range classification","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Used to classify tidal ranges of water bodies.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Transitional Water","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A surface water body in the vicinity of a river mouth that is partly saline in character as a result of its proximity to coastal waters, but that is substantially influenced by freshwater flows. Also known as estuaries.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Transitional water","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A Water Framework Directive term for \u0027bodies of surface water in the vicinity of river mouths which are partly saline in character as a result of their proximity to coastal waters but are substantially influenced by freshwater flows\u0027. Transitional waters include estuaries and saline lagoons.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Typology","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The means by which the Water Framework Directive requires surface water bodies to be differentiated according to their physical and physico-chemical characteristics.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"European Directive 91/271/EEC. A basic measure under the WFD which lays down minimum standards for the provision of sewerage systems and sewage treatment. Its objective is to protect the environment from the adverse effects of urban waste water discharges and waste water discharges from certain industrial sectors.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Very shallow","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"An allowable value for the description of the depth of a lake water body","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Water Framework Directive (WFD)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"European Union legislation, Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) establishing a framework for European Community action in the field of water policy.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Water Framework Directive objectives","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The objectives set out in Article 4 and Article 7 (paras 2 and 3) of the Water Framework Directive","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Water body","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A unit of surface water, being the whole (or part) of a stream, river or canal, lake or reservoir, estuary or stretch of coastal water. A groundwater water body is a defined area of an aquifer with geological and hydrological boundaries to ensure consistency and avoid fragmentation","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Water level management plans","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Water Level Management Plans provide a means by which water level requirements for a range of activities including agriculture, flood defence and conservation can be balanced and integrated.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Water protection zones","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Areas designated by the Secretary of State, within which activities polluting the water environment can be restricted or forbidden. Water Protection Zones can be designated at any scale (sub-catchment, catchment or a larger area) and restrictions are enforced to combat point and/or diffuse sources of water pollution.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Water services","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"All services which provide, for households, public institutions or any economic activity:","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Water table","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"For groundwater, the upper limit of the saturation zone.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Water use","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Water Services together with any other human activity identified as having a significant impact upon the status of water.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Weight of evidence","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A weight of evidence approach integrates results or evidence from several data sources, weighted appropriately, to make risk based decisions.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Welsh Government","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The devolved government in Wales.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Welsh technical advice notes","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"Planning Policy Wales (2002) sets out the land use planning policies of the Welsh Assembly Government (the Assembly Government). It is supplemented by a series of topic based Technical Advice Notes (Wales). Technical Advice Notes may be material to decisions on individual planning applications and will be taken into account by the National Assembly for Wales and planning inspectors in the determination of called-in planning applications and appeals.","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"Willingness to pay (value)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"The value (in \u0026pound;) society is willing to pay for the continued provision of a good or service or for a change in the good or service. In the context of river basin management planning economic appraisal, this is an environmental good or service. The willingness to pay values the Environment Agency has used in catchment economic appraisals are derived from the National Water Environment Benefits Survey (see \u0027National Water Environment Benefits Survey\u0027).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}},{"label":{"url":"","label":"uPBT (ubiquitous Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic substances)","color":"","name":"Label","order":"1"},"description":{"url":"","label":"A subset of priority substances (uPBTs) that have been identified under the amended EQS Directive (2013/39/EU).","color":"","name":"Description","order":"2"}}]}