Using the bathing water data API
The web Application Programming Interface (API) is an easy to use tool to select and retrieve data. It is useful for building applications that use bathing water profile and bathing water quality data. It is suitable, for example, for building a web page that displays a dashboard of bathing waters in a particular region or for building a table to include in a report.
The API can be accessed using a Web browser or any other program that can retrieve web pages. For example, clicking on this link. will list, in a new window or tab, all of the bathing waters in Cornwall.
The previous link retrieved the data formatted as an HTML page. This xml link will retrieve the same data formatted as XML, and this json link will retrieve it in JSON format. Other formats, e.g. comma-separated values (CSV) and Turtle are also supported.
As with any web based API, the interface consists of patterns of web addresses or URLs. In this introduction we will look at some example patterns to illustrate how the API can be used. There is a comprehensive description of the structure of the data and the URL patterns of the API, which can be found in the bathing water quality reference documentation.
A basic example
Let's look in more detail at the parts of the link used above:
This URL consists of an endpoint URL and some query parameters. The endpoint URL
http://environment.data.gov.uk/doc/bathing-water.json. The endpoint URL
defines the broad category of data to be returned, in this case a list of one or more bathing waters.
.json on the end of this endpoint URL specifies the format of the data to be returned; JSON in this case.
Query parameters modify the data that is returned. Query parameters can be used to filter the data, limit the number of results, and sort the data. Let's look in more detail at the query parameters used in the example:
_pageSize=200: the number of results to return. The default is 10. The upper limit is 200.
_view=basic: which properties of each bathing water to return. There are a number of predefined views. The basic view is the smallest, containing just the name and type of each bathing water. We will see other predefined views below, as well as how to extend them.
district=http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/id/7000000000043750: this is a filter. It says only return bathing waters whose district property has the value
http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/id/7000000000043750. That value is the Ordnance Survey's linked data identifier for Cornwall. Thus the filter says to only retrieve bathing waters located in Cornwall.
The API need not only be accessed through a web browser.
Here is an example of using that URL to retrieve data not using a browser.
commonly found on linux systems (and is also available on OSX and Windows computers).
Wget is used to retrieve data from a URL from the command line, or a script.
Here, it is used to retrieve JSON format data into a file:
wget -O data.json "http://environment.data.gov.uk/doc/bathing-water.json?_view=basic&_pageSize=200&district=http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/id/7000000000043750"
Using a browser to develop API queries
Most the of the functionality of the API is exposed via the web pages it generates. For example, when data is retrieved as a web page, there is a drop down menu listing all the data formats available. Another menu shows the views available on an endpoint. The menu to the right of a property value supports sorting and filtering values.
One way to develop a URL to retrieve data is to retrieve an example using the Web interface, using the menus available to select, filter and sort the data as required. The URL in the browser bar at the end of this process can then be copied and used in an application.
endpoint is known as a list endpoint
because it returns data about a list of items. Generally, to retrieve information about
a particular item, simply append a
'/' character, followed by the identifier for the
item to an appropriate list endpoint.
For exmample, the identifier for the Kingsand bathing water is
Data about Kingsand can be retrieved by appending the identifier to the
URL for the bathing water list endpoint to produce
Other endpoints in the data that may be of interest include:
http://environment.data.gov.uk/doc/bathing-water-quality/in-season/sample– in season sample assessments list endpoint
http://environment.data.gov.uk/doc/bathing-water-quality/stp-risk-prediction– list of short term pollution risk predications
http://location.data.gov.uk/doc/ef/SamplingPoint/bwsp.eaew– list of bathing water sampling points
A comprehensive list of endpoints can be found in the reference documentation.
Interpreting the returned data
The data returned by the API includes metadata as well as the data requested.
In the XML formatted data the data requested is included in the
Similarly, in the JSON formatted data, the
members hold the requested data. The other elements and members hold metadata.
The data returned consists of data items and their properties. The value of a property might be a data value such as a string or an integer, or another item, which can also have properties.
Views are used to select which properties are included in the returned data. In our example above, we specified that we wanted to use the basic view. The basic view is the simplest view and just includes type and label properties. If no view is specified, as in this request:
then a default view is used. The easiest way to see which views are available for a particular endpoint is to use the view drop down menu in the web page for the end point.
There are some built in views that are common to all end-points:
basic: a minimal view with just type and label properties
description: all the properties of an item
all: like a description view, but adds the label properties of any sub-items
If none of the predefined views are suitable, then it is possible
to augment a predefined view by adding to properties that are returned
from the API. We can add
_properties query parameter to the URL. This parameter takes a
comma-separated list of properties to include in the view. Here, for example,
we have extended the basic view by adding the
To retrieve properties of sub items, chain the property names together
with a dot character. For examle, we can add
the latest compliance assessment by adding the chain of properties
latestSampleAssessment.sampleClassification.label to the view, like this:
If we had only added the property
latestRiskPrediction, we would have
retrieved the URI for that prediction object but none of its properties. We can instead
use the dot notation to specify a chain of properties to be retrieved. The example uses
this to retrieve the human friendly name of the risk level of the latest
short-term pollution prediction. A star character,
* denotes all properties. To retrieve
all of the properties of the latest pollution prediction, including the label, use the path
The names of all the available properties can be found in the bathing water quality reference documentation.
We have seen one use of a filter so far in our example
restricts the results to bathing waters in Cornwall. In this example, we
are specifying the exact value of a property. We can also specify the minimum value
of a property by adding
min- to its property name, or
to specify the maximum value of a property. Property chains can be used too.
For example, to select all the bathing waters west of Penzance, we specify a maximum value for the longitude:
Sorting and paging
_sort parameter can be used to sort results, while
_pageSize parameter limits the number
of results returned, which can be use with
_page parameter to select a particular batch of results. For example:
selects the third batch (the first one is page zero) of ten bathing waters, ordered from south to north.
To invert the sort order, and sort from north to south, insert a '-' before the sort property like this:
While a lot can be done with the API, there are some things that require a full query language such as SPARQL. The one that is most often encountered is that you can't have an 'or' operation in a filter. Its not possible, for example, to select bathing waters that are west of Penzance OR east of London.
As mentioned above, more detailed information about the bathing water API can be found in the bathing water quality reference documentation.
This API is implemented by an open source tool called Elda. See the Elda documentation for more comprehensive documentation about what it can do.